Urbanization and Health Conditions in Nigeria: Dealing with the Urban Health Challenges

Main Article Content

Ubong Edem Effiong
Supper Roland Okijie
Muhammad Ridwan


Health concerns arising from urbanization requires serious commitment to revamp the Nigerian health sector. In that regards, this study sought to investigate the influence of urbanization and health expenditure on life expectancy and mortality rates in Nigeria from 1981 to 2020. The fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) technique was used to ascertain the influence of urbanization and government health expenditure on life expectancy and mortality rates in Nigeria. From the result of FMOLS, it was observed that urbanization exerts a positive and significant effect on life expectancy; but exerts a negative and significant effect on mortality rates. Moreover, government health expenditure generated a negative and significant effect on life expectancy, but a positive and significant effect on adult mortality. As such, the 15% recommended by the World Health Organization should be given a top priority in order to alleviate the country out of the menace of health tourism that has bedevilled the country over the years.   


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Effiong, U. E., Okijie, S. R., & Muhammad Ridwan. (2021). Urbanization and Health Conditions in Nigeria: Dealing with the Urban Health Challenges. SIASAT, 6(4), 190-203. https://doi.org/10.33258/siasat.v6i4.104


Abuja Declaration (2013). Africa Health. Africa, 35, 9.
Adewoyin, Y., Chukwu, N. A. and Sanni, L. M. 2018). Urbanization, spatial distribution of healthcare facilities and inverse care in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ghana Journal of Geography, 10(2), 96–111.
Almeida, A. P, Nunes, P. B., Duro, S. M. S. and Facchini, L. A. (2017). Socioeconomic determinants of access to health services among older adults: A systematic review. Review Saude Publica, 51, 50.
Andrabi, J. A. (2020). Changing Patterns of Population Density in the Jammu and Kashmir. Konfrontasi Journal: Culture, Economy and Social Changes, 7(4), 315 – 321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/konfrontasi2.v7i4.129
Baloi, J. A. (2019). The impact of urban requalification on municipal governance: An analysis from Mozambique. Britain International of Humanities and Social Sciences (BIoHS) Journal, 1(2), 6 – 19. DOI: http://doi.org/10.33258/biohs.v1i2.31
Bodo, T (2015). Rapid urbanisation problems and coping strategies in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Master’s thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State.
Bodo, T. (2019). Rapid urbanisation: theories, causes, consequences and coping strategies. Annals of Geographical Studies, 2(3), 32 – 45.
Chaolin, G. U. (2020). Urbanization. In International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography (Second Edition). Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/urbanization
Chen, X. and Parish, W. (1996). Urbanization in China: Reassessing an evolving model. In: J. Gugler (ed.), The Urban Transformation of the Developing World, New York: Oxford University Press.
Chen, X. (2007). China’s new revolution. In: R. Burdett and D. Sudjic (eds.), The Endless City, London: Phaidon.
Childe, V. G. (1950). The urban revolution. Town Planning Review, 21(1), 3 – 17.
Corbridge, S. and Jones, G. (2005). Urban bias: The continuing Debate. Paper prepared for DFID, April 2005.
Eckert, S. and Kohler, S. (2014). Urbanization and health in developing countries: A Systematic Review. World Health & Population, 15(1), 7-20.
Effiong, U. E. and Bassey, G. E. (2020). Public health expenditure and the quality of life in Nigeria: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Research and Sustainable Development, 7(1), 35 – 51.
Galea, S. and Vlahov, D. (2005). Urban health: Evidence, challenges, and directions. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 341– 365.
Galtung, J. (1971). A structural theory of imperialism. Journal of Peace Research, 2, 88 – 111.
Hart, J. T. (1971). The Inverse Care Law. Lancet 1, 405-12.
Hawley, A. (1981). Urban society: An ecological approach. New York: Ronald.
Ikporukpo, C. O. (2002). Spatial engineering and accessibility. An Inaugural Lecture, University of Ibadan. Vantage.
International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography (Second Edition) (2020). Urbanization. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081022955103555
Kasarda, J. D. and Crenshaw, E. M. (1991). Third world cities: Dimensions, theories and determinants. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 467 – 501.
Knox, P. (2009). Urbanization. In International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/urbanization
Lineberry, R. (1976). Equality, public policy and public services: The underclass hypothesis and the lim¬its to equality. Policy and Politics, 4(2), 67-84.
Lipton, M. (2005). Urban bias. In Forsyth, T. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of International Development, London, Routledge.
Lipton, M. (1997). Why poor people stay poor: A study of urban bias in world development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nolan, P and Lenski, G. (1985). Technoeconomic heritage, patterns of development, and the advantages of backwardness. Sociological Forces, 64, 341 – 358.
Sede, P. I. and Ohemeng, W. (2015). Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 – 2011). Health Economics Review, 5(2), pp. 1 – 11.
Shah, M. M., et al. (2020). The Development Impact of PT. Medco E & P Malaka on Economic Aspects in East Aceh Regency. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal). Volume 3, No 1, Page: 276-286
Smith, D. A. (1996). Third World cities in global perspective: The political economy of uneven urbanization. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Sofo, C. A., Akpajiak, A. and Pyke, T. (2003). Measuring poverty in Nigeria. Oxfam, UK: Oxfam Working Papers.
United Nations (2003). Slums of the World: The Face of Urban Poverty in the New Millennium.
United Nations (2012). Health in the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda. Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda. Thematic Think Piece.
United Nations Habitat (2015). State of World Cities; 2006/2007. Available from: http://www/unhabitat.org/ponss/listItem
Wheatley, P. (1971). The pivot of the four quarters. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
World Health Organization (2016). Global Report on Urban Health: Equitable, Healthier Cities for Sustainable Development. New York.